Kidney function may be impaired by diseases or drugs that effect the renal parenchyma, by extra renal disorders such as acute circulatory failure or as a result of conditions in which there is obstruction to outflow of urine. The deterioration of kidney function that ensues may be acute or chronic and of varying degree of severity.
Acute renal failure is caused by diseases like acute glomerulonephritis, bilateral pyelonephritis, severely high blood pressure and systemic lupus erythamatosus while chronic renal failure may result from conditionslsuch as progressive glomerulonephritis, chronic pyelonephritis, polycystic disease of kidneys and tuberculosis of kidneys.
According to Ayurveda, kidneys are the roots of madovahasrotas (channel of fat tissue) and are made up of rakta and medadhatus (blood and fat tissues). So diseases arising out of these dhatus (tissues) can affect kidneys and cause their failure. Madhumeha (diabetes) is well-known for it.